Get started !
online LTE test
online C test

Updated or New
CDF explained
5G Page
5G Intent (a presentation)
5G Intent (article)
CV2X Page
A Look at CV2X (a presentation)

Information Theory
Multiple Access
OSI Model
Data Link layer
Word about ATM
Standard Reference
Reference books
Resources on Web
Mind Map
Perl resources
Magic MSC tool
Bar graph tool
C programming
ASCII table
Project Management
Simple Google box
HTML characters
Site view counter
7 5 0 , 5 4 0
(May-2010 till Mar-2019)
another knowledge site

UMTS (CDMA codes) - 19a

CDMA codes [Under UMTS]
» Phy layer services - 25.302 «
» Multiplexing and Channel coding (FDD) - 25.212 «
» UE radio transmission and reception (FDD) - 25.101 «

Orthogonal codes (Walsh codes) are disrable due to their orthogonality. But orthogonal codes need synchronised operation. This is certainly possible in downlink in a cell as common channel can be used for synchronisation. For uplink, due to varying distances of users from base station, orthogonal codes will not be help. Rather we need codes which even if not orthogonal, would help in extracting information, similar to PN codes (refer CDMA article). Similar is the challenge when UE is able to receive transmissions from multiple base stations (base stations are not synchronised).

UMTS specify:
- OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) codes for channelisation codes,
- Scrambling codes for separating out UEs in uplink direction and base stations in downlink direction.

In downlink, synchronisation which channelisation codes require is achieved by using CPICH (Common Pilot Channel).

In uplink, the same is achieved by having user specific (dedicated) pilot channel DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel).

Easy to see that in downlink, same channelisation code can not be allocated to two UEs whereas in uplink, channelisation codes can be used by multiple UEs. Result is: in downlink, limitation is brought out *more* by availabillity of OVSF codes than by interference and in uplink, it would be signal power/ interference ratio that need special attention.

We saw in CCTrCh article that PHY has responsibility of sending CCTrCh over one or several physical channels. Note that chip rate is to be constant at 3.84 Mcps; so idea is to use appropriate spreading factors to realise required data rates. RRC - based on TFC - decides the appropriate SF to be used and configures PHY accordingly.

References: UMTS by Sanchez and Thioune, and WCDMA for UMTS by Holma and Toskala.

Copyright © Samir Amberkar 2010-11§

CCTrCh « UMTS Index » Random Access procedure